Style Guidelines

Contingent Horizons follows the citation and reference conventions of the Chicago Manuel of Style, in line with the American Anthropological Association (AAA) Style Guide.

To assist in the preparation of your submission to Contingent Horizons, common spelling, capitalization, usage, and reference conventions are summarized below.

Illustrative examples are noted in blue, while generic forms for various bibliographic entries are in orange.

Should you have further questions, we refer to the Oxford Canadian Dictionary, Editing Canadian English, and the Chicago Manual of Style on issues of spelling and grammar.

Download our Style Guidelines as a PDF file by clicking on the following link: Style Guidelines (pdf)

Spelling, capitalization, and usage

Abbreviations and initialisms

Avoid the use of single-word abbreviations for single words by spelling them out instead: “Ontario” instead of “Ont.”; “dozen” instead of “dz.”

Do not use periods in initialisms such as MP, MPP, NDP, PQ, USA, OECD. The first reference to a relatively unfamiliar institution, the name should be spelled out in full, followed by the abbreviation in brackets used in subsequent references.

Community-supported agriculture (CSA) is an alternative approach to growing and raising food. The CSA system sees eaters enter into a purchasing agreement with farmers prior to the start of the growing season.


Write out a series of years in full: 1980–1993, not 1980–93.

Do not use apostrophes when referring to decades: the 1990s, not the 1990’s. On a second mention, the term can be truncated: the 80s.

For specific dates, cite in the day, month, and year in that order: November 5, 1958. However, it is sufficient to refer to September 11, 2001 as September 11 or 9/11.

The names of centuries should be spelled out. Hyphens are used only in adjectival forms:

The nineteenth-century practice of displaying so-called savages from the colonies in “human zoos” persisted into the early twentieth century.


Do not use either automatic or manual hyphenation in your document.

Avoid hyphens (as in terms like “neoliberal”), but use a hyphen when the appearance of the compound would be confusing without the hyphen: co-author, pre-empt, cop-op, re-cover (as in supplying a new cover).

Use a hyphen to separate a prefix from a name or date: post-Vietnam, pre-1900.

Do not hyphenate place making, decision maker, and policy making when used as nouns. However, hyphenate adjectival forms:

The club members use walking as a place-making activity, reflecting intensely on the city’s history as they travel its streets.


Use italics to indicate that a word or phrase is being treated as a word rather than for its meaning:

In this article, open question is used to mean a question that cannot be answered by a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no.’

Use italics to indicate that a word used as a label:

The researcher calls the complicated coordination of actors, materials, biological processes, technological interventions, emotions, and money required to produce a viable embryo ontological choreography.

Also see TITLES below.


Notes may be used sparingly for comments and additional information only. If you think a note is essential, make it as brief and to the point as possible.

Use Word’s note-making function, and ensure that your notes are endnotes, not footnotes.

The note call must be in superscripted Arabic — 1, 2, 3. Note calls are placed outside most punctuation, so after a comma, a period, or quotations marks. Dashes are the only exception: in this instance they are placed immediately behind the word that precedes the dash.

Epidemiologists have studied fictional plagues in on-line role-playing games like World of Warcraft, while game programmers have attempted to make these plagues more realistic.1

“Try this,” she said, handing me a leaf she’d just pulled from the garden. “It’s a little bitter with a peppery bite.”2

To create his ethnographic soundscapes, Feld manipulates his source material — mixing, layering, equalizing, and adding effects such as reverb3 — to convey his own history of learning to listen as his interlocutors do.


Write out the numbers one to nine as words (except when used to express percentages or units of measurements).

Of the five starting players on the women’s basketball team, only one was under 6 feet tall.

We observed that the two morning classes returned 8% of the surveys while the return rate for all afternoon classes was 17%.

Write out any number that starts a sentence, but rephrase sentences to avoid spelling out long numbers at the beginning.

Twenty-two participants were interviewed about their involvement in environmental activism during their studies at university.

Use no commas or spaces in four-figure numbers. Use commas in numbers of five figures or more.

Although Occupy Wall Street began on September 17, 2011, with about 1000 protesters, less than a month later over 15,000 marchers had gathered in downtown Manhattan.


Use italics for the titles of books, journals (but not the articles), newspapers, magazines, movies, plays, and radio and television programs.

While the earlier ethnographic films staged scenes of indigenous life, The Ax Fight (1975) documents a spontaneous incident serendipitously captured on film.

Names of art exhibitions, art projects, film and festivals, and similar events should have capital initials and be in roman type.

The themes of ritual, religion, and spirituality underscore Burning Man, a week-long festival of self-expression and communal bonding that takes place in the Nevada desert.  

Please use quotation marks and roman (not italic) type for titles of chapters in books; articles in periodicals; the titles of short stories, poems, and songs.

The lyrics of “This Must Be the Place (Naive Melody)” by the Talking Heads speak to our very human, very instinctual desire for belonging.


Commas and periods

Use the Oxford or serial comma, a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (usually “and,” “or,” or “nor”) in a series of three or more terms.

Creative cities policies and practices reproduce — and frequently exacerbate — existing social and material disparities along the lines of gender, race, and class.

For treatment of commas and periods with endnote superscripts, see NOTES above.

For treatment of commas and periods in quotations, see QUOTATIONS below.

For treatment of commas and periods with citations, see both QUOTATIONS and CITATIONS below.


An en-dash is longer than a hyphen and is used to connect numbers in a range: 234–251.

To create an en-dash:

Mac: simultaneously hold Opt + –

PC: simultaneously hold Ctrl + –

Word: automatically created when you type [number-space-hyphen-space-number]; for example, 9 – 15 becomes 9 – 15. For number ranges, you will need to delete the spaces around the resulting en-dash.


An em-dash is longer than a en-dash and is used to set parenthetical clauses or phrases apart from the rest of a sentence. Em-dashes provide more emphasis than commas do, although they can also be used for clarity when the parenthetical remark contains internal punctuation. To create an en-dash:

Mac: simultaneously hold Opt + Shift + –

PC: simultaneously hold Alt + Ctrl + –

Word: automatically created when you type [word-hyphen-hypen-word]; for example:

Archival materials — photographs, maps, and text-based sources — have been accessed from multiple resources, including the Lloyd Reeds Map Collection.

Following the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, an uneasiness lingered at America’s fall from innocence — innocence in both its senses, “as not guilty and as naively trusting” (Kaplan 2003:83).


In-line quotations

Use double quotation marks for quoted material; single quotation marks are used only for quotes within quotes.

The journalist told me, “It wasn’t until half way through the interview that the senator said, ‘I don’t think you turned your voice recorder on.’” 

Commas and periods should appear within the quotation marks. (British contributors should note that this is the reverse of standard British practice.) All other trailing punctuation — colon, semi-colon — remain outside.

“Funding agencies expect to see that we actively pursue support from our local communities,” said one research participant. It takes a whole lot of additional paperwork to include the financial worth of donated goods and services in our books”; unfortunately, there is no way for non-profits to account for the value of volunteer time.

For treatment of quotations and punctuation with citations, see CITATIONS below.

For treatment of endnote superscripts with quotations, see NOTES above.

Block quotations

All quotations over 40 words in length should be set into a separate indented paragraph without quote marks at the beginning or end. Include one additional space above and one below the quotation.

As the outcome of socially produced threat and risk, technological disasters

present exactly what humans cannot tolerate and continuously endeavor to put at a distance: They signify an incubus on culture’s own back, a malignancy in the wholesomeness of the constructed world, danger within the secure. They represent a cultural betrayal. [2002:136]

On April 26, 1986, just such a cultural betrayal befell Ukraine and the rest of the globe with an explosion at the V.I. Lenin Nuclear Power Plant in Chornbyl.


All submissions should be double-spaced. However, abstracts and references should be single-spaced.

Use only one space after a period or other punctuation.

Do not leave extra spaces between paragraphs. Use a single tab to indent each paragraph. Do not use the space bar or style formatting for indenting.


Words ending in –ice /–ise
Use –ice for nouns and –ise for verbs, as in practice (noun)/practise (verb); also with advice/advise, lisence/license, prophecy/prophesy.

Verbs ending in –ise/–ize and their derived forms
Use –ize as in organize or nationalize or nationalization.

Verbs with single “l”/double “l” and their derivatives
Use the single “l” as in fulfil and fulfilment or enrol and enrolment.

Double “l”/single “l” in the past tense of verbs
Use, for example, travelled, modeled, and labelled rather than traveled, modeled, and labeled.

Examples of particular spellings
Use “our” as in behaviour, and labour; also benefited, judgment, programme, sizeable, worldview; also, grass roots (noun), but grassroots (adjective).

Word selection

Authors are to refer to themselves in the first person, not the third person.

Gender neutral and inclusive language
Avoid references to “man” or “mankind” and similarly gendered terms unless they appear in direct quotes from other sources; we prefer “humans” and “humanity” or even “people” to “man” or “mankind,” “police officer” to “policewoman,” and “fire fighter” to “fireman.”

The use of “he/she” or “him/her” or “he and she,” and other variations are awkward replacements. Suitable editing of the text can usually avoid such problems, often by making use of “individual” or “person” or by changing from the singular “he” and “his” to the plural “they” and “their.”

Citations and references 

Contingent Horizons follows the citation and reference conventions of the American Anthropological Association. For Style Guides, please refer to the Chicago Manuel of Style and the American Anthropological Association (AAA) Style Guide.

A brief overview of citations and references is provided below:


Citations are used to credit the work of other writers you’ve incorporated into your own writing. Citations must be used in-text whether you summarize an author’s main ideas, paraphrase one of the author’s passages, or quoted an author directly.

All references must be cited in author–date form, according to the Author-Date system outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style. Sources are cited in the text by the author’s last name and the publication date of the work cited.

Citations generally appear in parentheses (although see the next entry below for exceptions). Citations should appear directly before any following punctuation.

The ownership model of property currently prevalent in North American society is not a fact, but rather a very particular social and political construction (Blomley 2002).

When the author’s name appears as part of a sentence, it does not need to appear in the citation. Place the citation as near to the author’s name as possible, unless the sentence also includes a direct quote. In the latter instance, the citation is placed immediately after the closing quotation mark; as the author’s name has already been referenced, it is not necessary in the citation.

Kanna (2011) makes Dubai both the site and, most significantly, the subject of his research in Dubai: The City as Corporation.

Muller remarks that the 9/11 attacks were “exemplars of transnationalism, globalization, and postmodernity” (2004, 50).

For quoted passages, a page number is also required. Use a comma followed by a space between year and page number. Always place the citation directly after the quote. Citations should be placed between the closing quotation mark of the extract and any punctuation that follows it.

Postcolonialism arose as an indigenous critique of the “practices of domination” (Verdery 2002, 17) exercised by the “first” world over the “third” and is fundamentally a political and emancipatory form of scholarship.

Are these acts in part a way for those who lived under socialism to share some aspect of their experiences with their children, “to show them how things used to be” (Berdahl 1999, 203)?

When a publication has been co-authored by two writers, both surnames should be included in text citations.

There has been a movement from forms of sovereignty focused on the nation-state to forms that vest power into an assemblage of supranational organizations, such as NGOs, churches, and the World Bank (Hardy and Negri 2001).

Use “et al.” in text citations of three or more authors, but use all names in references cited. See the corresponding reference HERE.

The PAR model considers the past and present forces that influence a community’s capacity to anticipate, respond to and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. (Wisner et al. 2004, 83).

For multiple references to the same publication in one sentence, follow the model below:

Biehl and Locke (2010) speak of becoming, a Deleuzian concept that sees individuals defy the fetters of subjective, symbolic and structural violence by instead struggling to make space for “alternative futures” (332), “new experiences” (344), “small life chances” (333).

To reference multiple texts at one time, include all authors in the same set of parentheses, using semi-colons to separate the references. Place references in alphabetical order.

Other scholars use assistive reproductive technologies to interrogate the putative division between nature and culture (Franklin 2013; Strathern 1992; Taussig 2009; Weigman 2003).

Use “n.d.” to indicate undated works.

The restaurant was established in part to provide employment opportunities to blind and visually impaired people, who lead sighted patrons into pitch-black dining rooms and then serve as their waiters (Blindekuh n.d.).

For works near publication or in production, use “forthcoming” in lieu of a date.

Differential access to public space afforded people of colour, sex workers, and homeless people implies that not all citizens are granted equal citizenship (Regis forthcoming).

To cite a note, include the author’s name, the publication date, the page number, and the note number(s) as in the following example:

Ironically, government employment equity programs may defuse or absorb the progressive challenges that brought them about in the first place (Cooper 2014, 237 n. 46).

For personal communications, include the medium of communication (interview, e-mail, letter, etc.) and the specific date. No entry in your references list is required.

Rodríguez contends that student activists advanced other politically progressive ideas while protesting changes to post-secondary education (e-mail to author, August 16, 2014).

Citations for block quotes follow different rules: The citation appears after any periods or commas and is placed in square brackets rather than parentheses. See BLOCK QUOTATIONS above for an example.


References are intended to provide sufficient information that a reader might locate the publication. References are to be included in a reference list at the end of your manuscript. Complete references must be supplied for all in-text author–date citations. Do not include references that have not been cited in the text.

Note: Authors are asked not to indent or tab their references as noted in the AAA Style Guide. Indentation will be done by our designers when your submission is typeset. However, please leave a line break between each individual entry, as modelled below.

Ordering references

References are organized in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author. In case of publications co-written by two or more authors, use the surname of the first credited author. In the case of organizational authors, alphabetize according to the organization’s name.

Francis, Margot

2013  Creative Subversions: Whiteness, Indigeneity, and the National Imaginary. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Roy, Ananada, and Aihwa Ong

2011  Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing.

Statistics Canada

2007  Dawson, Yukon Territory (table). 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-591-XWE. Ottawa. Released March 13, 2007., accessed October 24, 2013.

References with the same author and date should be placed in alphabetical order by title. To allow readers to distinguish between articles in text citations, append “a,” “b,” etc., to each date. The author’s name need be mentioned only once.

Pink, Sarah

2008a  An urban tour. Ethnography 9(2): 175–196.

2008b  Mobilising Visual Ethnography: Making Routes, Making Place and Making Images. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9(3), n.p. Accessed 26 October 2013 from


The author(s) name(s) always stand alone on the line immediately preceding the rest of the reference information.

Spell out the author’s first name in full whenever possible. However, if the author usually goes by their initials, it is acceptable to use their initials in the reference instead.

Facts of publication

Where there are two places of publication for a reference, use only the first.

Do not use include the province/state/country name with city of publication in references unless the city is obscure or there are several with the same name. Use two-letter abbreviations for province and states: BC, ON, NC, PA, TX, etc. Spell out countries in their entirety.

Electronic sources

Include URLs for all electronic sources, as well as the dates on which they were accessed.

Crémier, Lucile

2014  Silences on Hindu lesbian subjectivity. Contingent Horizons 1(1):31–46., accessed January 20, 2015. 


Models of the most common kinds of references, are noted below. For additional examples, refer to the Chicago Manuel of Style or the American Anthropological Association (AAA) Style Guide.


Book references include the following information as a minimum, with additional details about translations, edited volumes, and chapters within a book as required:


Year  Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Single-author book

Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt

2005  Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Coauthored book

Wisner, Ben, and Piers Blaikie, Terry Cannon, and Ian Davis

2004 At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge.


Irigaray, Luce

1984  An Ethics of Sexual Difference. Carolyn Burke and Gillian C. Gill, trans. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Revised edition

Haviland, William A., Shirley A. Fedorak, and Richard B. Lee

2009  Cultural Anthropology. 3rd edition. Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd.

Edited volume

Turner, Bryan S., ed.

2008 Actor-network theory and material semiotics. In The New Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, 3rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chapter in a book with editor(s)

Law, John

2008 Actor-network theory and material semiotics. In The New Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, 3rd Edition. Bryan S. Turner, ed. Pp. 141–158. Oxford: Blackwell.

Electronic book

Law, John

2008 Actor-network theory and material semiotics. In The New Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, 3rd Edition. Bryan S. Turner, ed. Pp. 141–158. Oxford: Blackwell.

Journal articles

References include the following information, with additional details added to note that the publication appears in a special section (reviews, commentary, etc.):


Year  Article title. Journal title Volume(Issue):first page–last page.

Single-authored article

Candea, Matei

2007  Arbitrary locations: in defence of the bounded field-site. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 13(1), 167–184.


Zhang, Zhongyuan

2006  Review of Understanding Lefebvre: Theory and the Possible. Ephemera, 6(2), 219–223.

Other text-based publications

Work accepted for publication, but not yet published — Follow the appropriate model for format of the publication, substituting “Forthcoming” for the year of publication.

Regis, Helen A.

Forthcoming  Second-Line Parades, Citizenship and the Future of Public Space in New Orleans after Katrina. In Espaces Precaires: Enonciation des lieux/Le lieu de L’énonciation dans les contextes francophones interculturels.  Adelaide Russo and Simon Harel, eds.  Saint Nicholas, QC: Presses de l’Université Laval.

MA dissertation or PhD Thesis


Year  Dissertation/thesis title. Degree, Program of study, Institution of study.

Jiménez, Alberto Corsín

2001 The Becoming of Space: A Geography of Liminal Practices of the City of Antofagasta, Chile. DPhil dissertation, Faculty of Anthropology and Geography, University of Oxford.

Organizational report, including government documents

Organizational reports are often published by organizations rather than by publishing houses. If an electronic version of the report was used, note the format, URL, and access date.


Year  Report title. Place of publication: Publisher. Format, URL, access date.

Yonetani, Michelle, lead author

2013 Global Overview 2012: People displaced by disaster. Geneva: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Electronic document,$file/global-overview-2012.pdf, accessed January 18, 2014.

Organizational report without an identified author — Use the name of the organization or government department responsible for the report.

Statistics Canada
2007 Households and the environment (Catalogue no. 11-526-X). Ottawa.

Presentations and lectures


Year Title of presentation. Event at which the presentation was made. Date of presentation.

Pauchulo, Ana Laura

2009  Beyond empathy, time and space: possibilities for learning from the 1976–1983 Argentinean dictatorship in Argentina and Canada. Paper delivered at the 2009 Congress of the Latin American Studies Association in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 13.

Audiovisual recordings

The first line of your reference will detail the name of the director, composer or performer(s), whether this is an individual name or a group. Then provide as many of the following details as are available to you and make sense given the recording.

Year of release. Title. Format or medium. Running time. Place of publication, production, or distribution: recording company or publisher, catalogue number.

Rouch, Jean, dir.

1967  Jaguar. 97 mins. Paris: Les Films de la Pléiade.

The Weakerthans

2000  My Favourite Chords. From Left and Leaving. Compact Disc. Winnipeg: G7 Welcoming Committee Records, G7013.

On-line sources

On-line sources are not yet standardized in the way that print publications are. However, provide as much information in your reference as you can to assist readers in finding them.

Website — The three entries which follow provide examples of, respectively, a webpage with known author and publication date; web page with unknown author and known publication date; and a web page with unknown author and publication date. After listing the author or, when the author is unknown, the publishing organization or name of website, provide as many of the following details as possible.

Title of webpage. Publishing organization or name of website, publication date. URL, access date.

Freed, Benjamin R.

2011  For iPhones, a Central Park Soundtrack. New York Times Style Magazine, October 24., accessed December 4, 2011.

Otago Daily Times

2014 Girl saved from arranged marriage: report. , accessed November 4, 2014.


n.d.  blindekuh Zurich. Accessed December 21, 2012.

Blog entry — After listing the name of the author, provide as many of the following details as you can:

Year of publication. Entry title. Format. Blog name. Publication date. URL, access date.

Marshall, Wayne

2013 Musical Publics. Blog. Wayne&Wax. January 29., accessed October 26, 2014.

On-line multimedia — After listing the name of the performer, writer, or creator, provide as much of the following information as you can:

Year of production. Title. Format or medium. Running time. Series title. Producer/publisher. Publication date. URL, access date.

Shoebridge, Paul & Michael Simons, dirs.

2010 Welcome to Pine Point. Interactive website. National Film Board of Canada., accessed November 14, 2013.

Nagle, Robin

2013  What I discovered in New York City trash. Video. 7:52 mins. TED., accessed January 12, 2015.

Koenig, Sarah

2014  To be suspected. Podcast. 47:40 mins. Serial. WBEZ., accessed November 20, 2014.



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